A clinical performance from India's four fast bowlers saw Virat Kohli's team finish day one firmly on top, with Jasprit Bumrah leading the charge with four wickets.
Winning the toss, England skipper Joe Root opted to bat first on a wicket with a healthy covering of grass and was left to rue his decision as India's attack took up the challenge with glee.
Spearheaded by Bumrah (4/46) and Mohammad Shami (3/28), the tourists bowled England out for 183 and reached stumps at 21/0, primed to take control of the match. Opting to leave the in-form Ravichandran Ashwin out of the attack to make room for an extra seamer, India's quartet of quicks - Shardul Thakur (2/41) and Mohammad Siraj (1/48) being the others - collected all 10 wickets as England were bowled out in 65.4 overs.
In response, India finished the day at 21/0, with Rohit Sharma (9*) and KL Rahul (9*) at the crease.
The hosts got off to the worst possible start as Bumrah trapped Rory Burns (0) in the front of the stumps in the first over, with England yet to get off the mark.
Zak Crawley then joined Dom Sibley at the crease and the pair were tasked with seeing off the new ball, which was moving through the air and off the deck. They batted patiently, leaving the good deliveries and punishing the bad ones. The Indians resolutely stuck to their task, with challenging spells from Bumrah and Shami, who beat the bat at regular intervals.
The stand was finally broken by Siraj, who got the wicket of Crawley for 27, after a successful review by Kohli. The review was brought on by the persistence of wicketkeeper Rishabh Pant, with DRS confirming an inside edge off the pads and into the gloves of the keeper. It was a brave referral from the Indians, who had been unsuccessful with an lbw appeal they had sent upstairs just three deliveries earlier. The dismissal brought Root out to the middle and the captain struck three consecutive boundaries off Siraj - one an edge over gully - to help England to lunch at 61/2 with the match delicately poised.
It was a near-perfect start in the second session for India, as Sibley's patient knock of 18 came to an end as he went for a flick against Shami, only for the ball to land straight in the hands of Rahul at midwicket.
Back in the Test side, Jonny Bairstow joined his skipper at the crease, and the pair combined in a 72-run stand, which had the hosts nudging the second session in their favour. Root brought up his 50th Test half-century, as the pair mixed caution with aggression. But just on the stroke of tea, Shami struck with excellent in-swinging delivery, trapping Bairstow (29) in front of the stumps. The umpire initially adjudged Bairstow to be not-out, but a successful review by Kohli meant that England would end the second session on 138/4, in 50.2 overs.
Bairstow's dismissal proved the start of the rot for England, with Shami striking again straight after tea, sending the new batsman, Dan Lawrence, back early for a duck. With Shami and Bumrah turning the screws, Jos Buttler endured 16 balls on zero before edging Bumrah behind on the 17th.
Three overs later India got the wicket that mattered most, with Thakur striking with the first delivery of a new spell, trapping Joe Root in front for 64. Thakur was celebrating again three balls later, having Ollie Robinson (0) caught at mid-on. When Bumrah removed Stuart Broad lbw for four, England had slipped from 138/3 to 160/9.
Sam Curran (27*) managed to add a further 23 runs to the scoreboard with James Anderson (1) before the latter had his stumps clattered by a brilliant Bumrah yorker to end England's innings.
Sharma and Rahul dug in through a testing final hour to wrap up the day and ensure it was advantage India at stumps.
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